Ms. Parshall has served on the Ionis board since September 2000 and as a senior strategic advisor to Ionis since January 2018. Previously she served as our chief operating officer from December 2007 through December 2017 and as chief financial officer from June 1994 through December 2012. She also served as Ionis’ corporate secretary through 2014, and has served with the company in various executive roles since November 1991. Prior to joining Ionis, Ms. Parshall practiced law at Cooley LLP, outside counsel to Ionis, where she was a partner from 1986 to 1991. Ms. Parshall is a member of the American and California bar associations. Ms. Parshall serves on the board of directors of Cytokinetcs Inc. and Akcea Therapeutics, Inc.